Gyalwang Karmapa completed the reading transmission of the 9th Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje’s The Lion’s Roar which Destroys Confusion. He described the Four Yogas of Mahamudra, one-pointed, simplicity, one-taste, and no-meditation, and the three stages within each yoga – lower, middle, greater – and mapped each one onto the five paths and ten levels of the Bodhisattva. His Holiness went on to explain the phrase “appearances are mind”, and to speak more on the controversies between the rangtong and shentong viewpoints.

Finally His Holiness addressed the foreigners present – thanking them for attending the teaching and wishing them a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year – first in Chinese and then in English.